Last week I wrote about two fictional couples, the Morrows and the Bodens, as they faced a sudden, forced move from their homes in a foreclosed apartment building. I used their scenario of dislocation to illustrate the differences between stress and trauma. I mentioned that many of the people I meet and talk to believe they’re under enormous stress during this, our Great Recession, but would deny that they’re experiencing trauma. In my professional and personal opinion, I disagree. I think many, possibly most people don’t understand what trauma is, and have actually been traumatized rather than just stressed by the events of the recent past.
Most often, when people hear the word trauma they think of some horrific and shocking event. They think of tragedies like car accidents, violence and brutality, death – something horrendous and devastating. These kinds of events are certainly trauma: a type called shock trauma.
But there are many other traumatic experiences that, while not shocking, are beyond the ordinary. Extraordinary experiences beyond normal fears and normal circumstances can produce a kind of trauma, too. When these events occur repeatedly over a period of time they erode our physical and emotional reserves. They can be very strong and significant and extremely destructive. I see the symptoms of our “wearing down” in higher divorce rates, higher suicide and suicide attempt rates, and higher rates of disease and depression.
If you wondered, when you read last week’s illustration about the Morrows and the Bodens, whether there might be “more to the story”, you were right. What if I were to go back in the history of the two families, and fill in some of the gaps?
Take Mr. Morrow, the head of the family who experienced stress, rather than trauma, from their enforced move and handled the transition in a healthier way. Let’s say, pre-move, he had enjoyed the security of a steady job for the last decade, he and his family were in good health, and had maintained close, loving ties with friends and an extended family of supportive relatives.
Now let’s take Mr. Boden, whose family suffered significant trauma around their relocation. I could shed some light on his struggle by proposing that his family’s move was just one more trial in a series of unfortunate recent events. Let’s say he was laid off three years ago and has been alternating between unemployment and scraping together small jobs since then. Let’s say he has chronic back pain, his wife has stress-induced migraine headaches, and his kids aren’t doing well at school. Let’s say, even, he’s the son of an alcoholic father who was unavailable both in the past and the present.
My point is that at the outset, going into this sudden and difficult need to move, Mr. Morrow had physical and emotional reserves that Mr. Boden did not. And how many of us can confidently say, after over three years of economic and personal hits, that we still have plenty of energy reserves for the continuing challenges coming almost daily down the road?
In 2008, when the stock market fell, and the real estate market tanked, and jobs started to disappear – when the Great Recession got its start – we all felt shocked, we all felt traumatized. Even though it had been coming for a while, it was a shock when it first hit, and it hit fast and hard. And it was devastating. That we’re still in pretty much the same place, three years later, is one of the things I think is unique to this period of time. I see that people are somehow getting used to our hard times and adapting in some ways, and so they don’t realize they’re experiencing ongoing, or developmental trauma.
Developmental trauma occurs when an individual experiences a series of events which may or may not be shocking of themselves, but are painful, disturbing, and overwhelming. This type of trauma is called “developmental” because it disrupts the normal intrinsic development, or maturation, of a child or adult. A child suffers developmental trauma, for example, when they are subjected to repeated verbal or physical abuse. Adults can experience developmental trauma also, when the circumstances of their lives prevents them from growing or thriving in physical, emotional, mental, or spiritual ways.
The economic straightjacket of our recent past has put a severe limit on opportunities for adults to grow and prosper. People are feeling thwarted and trapped in their efforts to provide for themselves and their families. They’re learning to adapt, or they’re dealing with their frustration and pain by going numb. Some of us respond to crises with denial. Some of us respond with action; some of us tend to freeze into paralysis. There are many things people do to survive in times of crisis and difficulty. In the meantime, whether they feel it or not, they’re frying emotionally and physically. Their systems are under siege, 24/7.
My heart goes out to all of you who find yourselves in this painful, devastating situation. I too have experienced recent financial trauma.
In the hope that it will provide you some relief, I promised last week to include suggestions for how to deal with ongoing stress – the “wealth, health, and stealth” kind. These suggestions may make it possible for you to keep your unavoidable stress from turning into avoidable trauma. You saw some of these ideas at work in the story of the Morrows and Bodens. In the midst of difficult circumstances and events, I encourage you to try the following:
- Slow down, don’t panic
- Remember you’re not alone
- Think through your options
- Ask for help, don’t isolate yourself
- Take good care of yourself physically and emotionally
- Don’t blame yourself for things beyond your control
- Reduce the pressure on yourself in every way possible
- Keep your perspective, others are suffering too
- Look for ways to help others, and to give back to those who’ve helped you
- Don’t lose hope, focus on the positive
These ten steps are fairly simple, but I know they are truly not easy. I’ll be back next week to go through these steps in more detail. I’ll provide suggestions for how you can get started using these steps in real-life, practical ways. I know these steps can help you, because I use them and teach them to my patients, and I’ve seen them make a world of difference in these hard times. I encourage you to give them a try.